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Xerox Parc And The Origins Of Gui


Parc And East Japan Railway Company

Word of them spread through the computer-science community, challenging other groups of designers to achieve similarly dramatic capabilities. Famously, in 1979 Steve Jobs was inspired to start the line of development that led to the Apple Macintosh after visiting PARC and seeing the Alto and D-machines in action there. Less often told is that Jobs had been pre-primed for his epiphany by Apple employee Jef Raskin, whose 1967 thesis had inspired some of the PARC research. Raskin had a keen interest in advanced UI design and wanted to find some of the PARC concepts a home at Apple so he could continue pursuing them. From today’s post-Alto point of view, screen shots of the Alto UI show a curious mix of modernity and crudity. What’s present are all the logical components of GUIs as we know them — icons, windows, scrollbars, sliders, and the like. Also, the pseudo-3D sculptural effects of modern GUI buttons and other impedimenta are missing; the widgets are flat outline boxes, and the whole resembles nothing so much as an etch-a-sketch drawing of a modern interface.

Graphical User Interface (gui)

in what year were graphical user interfaces (guis) pioneered

Oral history interview with Marvin L. Minsky, Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. Minsky describes artificial intelligence research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology , including research in the areas of graphics, word processing, and time-sharing.

MSX-View contains software such as Page Edit, Page View, Page Link, VShell, VTed, VPaint and VDraw. An external version of the built-in MSX View of the Panasonic FS-A1GT was released as an add-on for the Panasonic FS-A1ST on disk instead of 512 KB ROM DISK. Released in 1983, the Soviet Union Agat PC featured a graphical interface and a mouse device. In the 1960s, Douglas Engelbart’s Augmentation of Human Intellect project at the Augmentation Research Center at SRI International in Menlo Park, California developed the oN-Line System . This computer incorporated a mouse-driven cursor and multiple windows used to work on hypertext. Engelbart had been inspired, in part, by the memex desk-based information machine suggested by Vannevar Bush in 1945. There have been important technological achievements, and enhancements to the general interaction in small steps over previous systems.

Mac Os X

  • Microsoft continued to work with IBM in developing the fully graphical OS system, but kept pounding on Windows, hoping to eventually get one version right.
  • Apple hemmed and hawwed a few more months, and finally sicced the long-threatened lawsuit on Microsoft, claiming that Windows stole the Macintosh’s “look and feel.” 1988 saw the market all but ignore Apple’s GS/OS for the Apple IIGS, but the Mac continued to dominate the market.
  • As the cliche says, “even a blind squirrel finds an acorn every now and then.” It was about to be acorn time in Redmond.
  • Sometime around the debut of the Amiga, the first UNIX GUI appeared as well.

For another, YouTube doesn’t offer customizability, so it’s not exactly the best choice for a video gallery or something similar that would potentially increase video engagement. Along with this is the UX, where, for example, a video player will minimize into a much smaller video player – allowing the user to switch back to viewing it whenever they want. It’s a technique utilized by a variety of news outlets including Forbes, Time and CNET. A trend that has been emerging over recent years is an increased amount of attention given to video. Video commands a much larger CPM as compared to other advertising media.

Which interface uses the least memory and processing power?

Features of a command-line interface
An advantage of command driven programs is that they do not need the memory and processing power of the latest computer and will often run on lower spec machines. Command driven programs do not need to run in Windows .

Compared to the competing Windows 3.0 GUI it could run reasonably well on simpler hardware, but its developer had a restrictive policy towards third-party developers that prevented it from becoming a serious competitor. And it was targeted at 8-bit machines and the software transportes 16-bit computer age was dawning. Advanced file managers for MS-DOS were able to redefine character shapes with EGA and better display adapters, giving some basic low resolution icons and graphical interface elements, including an arrow for the mouse pointer.

Who created the first graphical user interface?

In 1979, the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center developed the first prototype for a GUI. A young man named Steve Jobs, looking for new ideas to work into future iterations of the Apple computer, traded US $1 million in stock options to Xerox for a detailed tour of their facilities and current projects.

Only with Mac OS X did any mainstream graphical interface provide the smoothly rendered, fractionally spaced type that Acorn accomplished in 1992 or earlier. Virtual reality devices such as the Oculus Rift and Sony’s PlayStation VR aim to provide users with presence, a perception of full immersion into a virtual environment. With Mac OS X 10.4 released in April 2005, new features were added, including Dashboard (a virtual alternate desktop for mini specific-purpose applications) and a search tool called Spotlight, which provides users with an option for searching through files instead of browsing through folders. Originally written for the 8-bit home computer Commodore 64 and shortly after, the Apple II series. The name was later used by the company as PC/Geos for IBM PC systems, then Geoworks Ensemble.

in what year were graphical user interfaces (guis) pioneered

It’s a little sobering to reflect that most of what we have learned to add to GUIs since 1973 is eye candy. For reasonable update speed, graphics displays really need to be coupled more closely to the machine that is doing the rendering than a serial connection will allow. This is especially true if one needs to support the kind of high interactivity and frequently changing displays characteristic of games or GUIs; for this, only direct memory access will do. a Unix-like and POSIX-compliant computer operating system assembled under the model of free and open source software development and distribution.

For instance, if you run a DIY blog, you can include a series of videos, each with clear instructions and arrange in sequential order, so they are easier to remember and follow. This kind of simplicity is natural on the eye, and if properly executed, will have your visitors coming back every time. When it comes to video players, the most significant participant in the game is easily YouTube. It’s easily embeddable, easy to monetize and once you’ve grown a substantial user base, you’re almost guaranteed of getting recurring viewers. However, using YouTube goes against our ‘host your own videos’ mantra, for one.

When the display adapter lacks the ability to change the character’s shapes, they default to the CP437 character set found in the adapter’s ROM. Some popular utility suites for MS-DOS, as Norton Utilities and PC Tools used these techniques as well. One major difference between other OS’s of the time was the Amiga’s fully multi-tasking operating system, a powerful built-in animation system using a hardware blitter and copper and 4 channels of 26 kHz 8-bit sampled sound. This made the Amiga the first multi-media computer years before other OS’s. Due to a mistake made by the Commodore sales department, the first floppies of AmigaOS named the whole OS «Workbench». This common consent ended with release of version 2.0 of AmigaOS, which re-introduced proper names to the installation floppies of AmigaDOS, Workbench, Extras, etc. MSX-View was developed for MSX computers by ASCII Corporation and HAL Laboratory.

Steve Jobs: Misses and hits in a remarkable career –

Steve Jobs: Misses and hits in a remarkable career.

Posted: Thu, 06 Oct 2011 07:00:00 GMT [source]

There have been a few significant breakthroughs in terms of use, but the same organizational metaphors and interaction idioms are still in use. Desktop computers are often controlled by computer mice and/or keyboards while laptops often have a pointing stick or touchpad, and smartphones and tablet computers have a touchscreen. The influence of game computers and joystick operation has been omitted. A video gallery is relevant for anyone who has content they need to show in linear chronological order. If the content in front depends on the content at the back, the videos and links will be much easier to follow. Recall that these concepts are all encompassed by the UI/UX rules of design. Video galleries are most relevant to people who have video blogs and need to get the interactivity of their sites up.