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Operating Systems


When personal computers became popular in the 1980s, operating systems were made for them similar in concept to those used on larger computers. The latter is a visual interface that allows the end user to issue commands by interacting with symbols, icons, and menus using an input device such as a mouse or touchpad. Command line interfaces are the oldest of the interfaces discussed here. It involves the computer responding to commands typed by the operator. This type of interface has the drawback that it requires the operator to remember a range of different commands and is not ideal for novice users.

  • Some operating systems provide GUI and CLI while others offer only CLI.
  • GUI means a Graphical user interface while CLI means the command line interface.
  • On the other hand, GUI offers graphics that consists of icons and images that enable a user to do a task directly.
  • As the name suggests, one has to write commands to perform a certain task in the CLI system.
  • The operating system offers a GUI vs CLI user interface to interact with an electronic device.
  • CLI requires expertise in commands for performing a certain task while GUI can be operated by a beginner.

These systems introduced important concepts, such as time sharing, multiprogramming, virtual memory, hierarchical file systems, and device-independent I/O . This topic had given a detailed description of operating system, user interface, changing simple settings in the operating system, files & directory management and types of files. 4Running an ApplicationThe operating system offers an interface between programs and user, as well as programs and other computer resources such as memory, printer and other programs. The operating systems we’ve been talking about so far were designed to run on desktop and laptop computers. Mobile devices such as phones, tablet computers, and MP3 players are different from desktop and laptop computers, so they run operating systems that are designed specifically for mobile devices. Examples of mobile operating systems include Apple iOS and Google Android. According to StatCounter Global Stats, macOS users account for less than 10% of global operating systems—much lower than the percentage of Windows users (more than 80%).

Basic operating system features were developed in the 1950s, such as resident monitor functions that could automatically run different programs in succession to speed up processing. Operating systems did not exist in their modern and more complex forms until the early 1960s. Hardware features were added, that enabled use of runtime libraries, interrupts, and parallel processing.

Diversity Of Operating Systems And Portability

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COSY is a microkernel based operating system designed and optimized especially for parallel computers. The resident kernel on each node provides the basic functional abstractions of an operating system with low overhead, low latency and good scalability as demanded by the users of a parallel computer. Based on these abstractions all other functionality is provided by distributed services. As an example the management of parallel applications and a service for distributed dynamic partitioning of the parallel machine are described. MPI has also been implemented successfully on top of Cosy as well as a number of highly parallel applications. Looking at the results of the Cosy project we believe it is possible to provide the benefits of resident operating system services to a highly parallel machine with good efficiency as well as good scalability. Leveraging multiple operating systems allows the examiner to use software applications written for specific operating system platforms.

Infographic: The History Of Programming Languages

Individual applications for many platforms presented their own GUI variants. Despite the GUIs advantages, many reviewers questioned the value of the entire concept, citing hardware limits, and problems in finding compatible software.

operating system and graphical user interface class 8

Smaller app mobile devices such as personal digital assistants and smartphones typically use the WIMP elements with different unifying metaphors, due to constraints in space and available input devices. Applications for which WIMP is not well suited may use newer interaction techniques, collectively termed post-WIMP user interfaces. The actions in a GUI are usually performed through direct manipulation of the graphical elements. Beyond computers, GUIs are used in many handheld mobile devices such as MP3 players, portable media players, gaming devices, smartphones and smaller household, office and industrial controls. Users interact with information by manipulating visual widgets, which are designed to respond in accordance with the type of data they hold and support the actions necessary to complete the user’s task.

operating system and graphical user interface class 8

Operating Systems For Mobile Devices

One reason for this is that Apple computers tend to be more expensive. However, many people do prefer the look and feel of macOS over Windows. It is also used as an operating system for a wide variety of computer hardware, including desktop computers, supercomputers, video game systems, and embedded devices such as mobile phones and routers. The Apple Lisa was released in 1983, and various windowing systems existed for DOS operating systems (including PC GEM and PC/GEOS).

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For instance, a 20-year-old software application may provide an examiner with a needed function that no newer software provides, and to run that special program the use of an operating system from the same era may be required. As the demand for user mobility increases, a user’s need to carry a lightweight handheld personal computer and to be able to access information on the Internet increases as well. Designing a new technology to accommodate this mobile computing environment becomes a new challenge to the operating system research. Most operatings systems for large mainframes are direct descendants of the third-generation systems, such as Honeywell Multics, IBM VI and VM/370, and CDC Scope.