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History Of The Graphical User Interface


By July ’75, BASIC 2.0, a Microsoft creation, was running the new, more powerful Altairs. «The future lies with a graphical windowing interface, mouse cursor control, pull-down menus, dialog boxes, and the like are destined to take over the IBM PC and compatible world as well.» Initial development on Lisa began before the 1979 field trip to PARC (Raskin says that Lisa was first envisioned as a text-driven PC along the lines of the Apple II), but she didn’t appear on the market until January 1983.

Who designed the first operating system?

The first operating system was introduced in the early 1950’s, it was called GMOS and was created by General Motors for IBM’s machine the 701.

Lisa was rather large and clunky, though many veterans of the PC wars insist that she is still one of the most efficient and usable machines of her type ever built. Jef Raskin, a project manager with Apple, first told Jobs and Wozniak about the research being done at PARC. It’s a mistake to envision this scene as taking place in some deserted parking garage, with Raskin hiding in the shadows and doing his best Deep Throat impersonation. A closer scenario is that Raskin wanted to work more directly on a GUI, and dropped a bug in Jobs’ ear about the neato keeno work being done at PARC. Jobs was reluctant to go at first, but eventually Raskin, who wrote his master’s thesis on a WYSIWYG graphical interface back in 1967 and was seeing some of his ideas brought to fruition by the folks in PARC, piqued his interest.

  • At this point, the digital computer had not been invented, so there was no way for such a device to actually work, and Bush’s ideas were not widely read or discussed at that time.
  • It would allow the user to access all human knowledge using connections very similar to how hyperlinks work.
  • In the early 1930s he first wrote of a device he called the «Memex,» which he envisioned as looking like a desk with two touch screen graphical displays, a keyboard, and a scanner attached to it.

Rhapsody also failed to materialize, and eventually transmogrified into the OS X project, announced in May 1998. An upgrade to the “Platinum” system, OS 9, was released in October 1999. The next-generation OS X was finally released for the PC in March 2001, and many of the features promised for Rhapsody appeared in this system. Allen rejoined Microsoft in time to christen the company’s new offices in Alberquerque. In early 1977 Microsoft licensed “AppleBASIC” to Apple for the flat fee of $21,000, which turned out to be a steal of a deal, as Apple sold over a million computers with AppleBASIC running the show . By the end of 1979, Microsoft had participated in porting both FORTRAN and COBOL languages to microcomputers, moved to Washington State, entered into agreements with ASCII Corporation of Japan, and expanded into Europe.

Mac Os X

in what year were graphical user interfaces (guis) pioneered

The original idea was to give Apple users a “next-generation” system to be called Copland. Instead of releasing it in mid-1996, Apple squelched the project in favor of working with the newly acquired NeXT OS. Apple then announced a new system under development, Rhapsody, which would combine elements of the NeXT OS on top of a UNIX core. The aforementioned OS 8 appeared in July 1997, and featured some of the more touted elements from Copland.

Types Of Guis

in what year were graphical user interfaces (guis) pioneered

The two-man operation was now employing 40 people and bringing in over $7 million. Microsoft’s congenial association with Apple continued into the 1980s, with Microsoft bestowing the Z-80 SoftCard upon Apple in 1980. The SoftCard allowed the Apple II to run most of the CP/M programs currently featured on most smaller computers. Starting out as a two-man operation out of the backseat of Bill Gates’s car, Gates and cohort Paul Allen saw the MITS Altair and in the span of a month had a BASIC interpreter ready to go for the beastie. The code wasn’t tested until they demonstrated the program for MITS, and Allen’s first time even touching an Altair was when he inputted the code into MITS’ machine. MITS bought the product – the first programming language written specifically for a personal computer – and Allen joined MITS as Director of Software.

How does GUI work?

A GUI allows the user of a computer to communicate with the computer by moving a pointer around on a screen and clicking a button. A program on the computer is constantly checking for the location of the pointer on the screen, any movement of the mouse, and any buttons pressed.

Eventually the cheaper, pared-down Lisa2 appeared, but neither sibling did well on the market – they were too expensive, and the Apple II family was still riding high on the market, even with the competition from other machines like the Commodore 64 and VIC-20, the IBM PC, and the Radio Shack TRS-80. Even later, after the Macintosh had begun to take the PC market by storm, Apple decided to unload some of their Lisa stockpile by repackaging it as the “Macintosh XL.” The buyers weren’t fooled, and many Lisas ended up in a California landfill. Interestingly enough, Lisa featured a set of integrated software called “7/7,” that included a word processor, a spreadsheet, chart builder, outline manager, project scheduler, drawing program, and modem communication utility. Jobs and his buds envisioned Lisa (named for the original chief engineer’s daughter, and also standing for Local Integrated Software Architecture) as the first of a new, GUI-based PC family, but developed her primarily for business use.

in what year were graphical user interfaces (guis) pioneered

It’s notable that the new product line came on the heels of the 1981 failure of the Apple III line, which was so flawed that it had to be recalled. The Lisa line featured the warhorse Motorola mantenimiento de flota MC68000 microprocessor which trundled along at 5MHz, boasted 512K of RAM , had every bell and whistle that the Apple design team could stuff inside her, and cost more than $10,000.

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Posted: Wed, 30 Jan 2019 08:00:00 GMT [source]