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Graphical User Interface

30/01/2020

Win 95, the first operating system to take advantage of Intel’s powerful 32-bit chips, and a near-clone of the Mac GUI, seemed to be the irresistible force destined to finally run Apple out of business once and for all. Microsoft’s decision to slap a modified version of the Win 95 interface onto Win NT 4.0 boosted the NT platform’s popularity, and detracted that much more from the Apple market share.

  • A web user interface, or web-based graphical user interface, refers to the interaction between a user and software running on a web server wherein the user interface is the web browser and the web page it downloaded and rendered.
  • Character user interfaces support automation and scripting and tend to provide greater granular control and a higher level of functionality than graphical user interfaces.
  • Browsers and iOS are a throwback to the earlier navigational interfaces, where users wander about a labyrinth of passages leading to modal screens.
  • Character user interface, also known as command-line user interface or non graphical user interface, refers to the use of text commands, managed by a command-line interpreter, in order to communicate with a computer program.
  • Technologies such as Flash, Java, JavaScript, and Silverlight enable interactions such as drag-and-drop, playing audio, drawing on the screen, and access to the keyboard and mouse.
  • Typically software developers and system administrators rely on command-line interfaces to configure machines, manage computer files, and access program features that are otherwise unavailable on a graphical user interface.

The name text-based user interface was later invented to name this kind of interface. Many MS-DOS text mode applications, like the default text editor for MS-DOS 5.0 , also used the same philosophy. The IBM DOS Shell included with IBM DOS 5.0 supported both text display modes and actual graphics display modes, making it both a TUI and a GUI, depending on the chosen mode. Visi On had many features of a modern GUI, and included a few that did not become common until many years later. It was fully mouse-driven, used a bit-mapped display for both text and graphics, included on-line help, and allowed the user to open a number of programs at once, each in its own window, and switch between them to multitask. Visi On also demanded a hard drive in order to implement its virtual memory system used for «fast switching», at a time when hard drives were very expensive. These prototype GUIs are at least mouse-driven, but completely ignored the WIMP ( «window, icon, menu, pointing device») concept.

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The Xfce, KDE and GNOME look and feel each tend to undergo more rapid change and less codification than the earlier OPEN LOOK and Motif environments. X allows a graphical terminal user to make use of remote resources on the network as if they were all located locally to the user by running a single module of software called the X server. The software running on the remote machine is called the client application. X’s network transparency protocols allow the display and input portions of any application to be separated from the remainder of the application and ‘served up’ to any of a large number of remote users. The main window of a given application can occupy the full screen in maximized status.

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Alternative Titles: 86-DOS, DOS, Microsoft Disk-Operating System, QDOS, disk operating system. MS-DOS, in full Microsoft Disk Operating System, the dominant operating system for the personal computer (PC) throughout the 1980s.

The users must then to switch between maximized applications using the Alt+Tab keyboard shortcut; no alternative with the mouse except for de-maximize. When none of the running application windows are maximized, switching can be done by clicking on a partially visible window, as is the common way in other GUIs.

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Screenshots of first GUIs of Apple Lisa prototypes show the early designs. A list of the improvements made by Apple, beyond the PARC interface, can be read at Folklore.org. Jef Raskin warns that many of the reported facts in the history of the PARC and Macintosh development are inaccurate, distorted or even fabricated, due to the lack of usage by historians of direct primary sources. Beginning in 1979, started by Steve Jobs and led by Jef Raskin, the Apple Lisa and Macintosh teams at Apple Computer continued to develop such ideas. The Lisa, released in 1983, featured a high-resolution stationery-based (document-centric) graphical interface atop an advanced hard disk based OS that featured such things as preemptive multitasking and graphically oriented inter-process communication. The comparatively simplified Macintosh, released in 1984 and designed to be lower in cost, was the first commercially successful product to use a multi-panel window interface. A desktop metaphor was used, in which files looked like pieces of paper.

Graphical User Interface (gui)

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How to create a file in Linux from terminal window? 1. Create an empty text file named foo.txt: touch foo.bar.
2. Make a text file on Linux: cat > filename.txt.
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4. Run shell command: echo ‘This is a test’ > data.txt.
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And there was Quarterdeck’s DESQView, the first program to bring multitasking and windowing capabilities to a DOS environment. Berkeley Softworks’ GeoWorks is another GUI OS worthy of note; it was used on the Commodore 64, some Apple IIs, and still survives in an altered form as software for the PalmConnect system. GEOS was lauded as a slick, stable operating system, but the lack of software for it – developer software did not appear for six months after GEOS’ debut – ensured that most PC users never gave it a second thought. Microsoft had already caused a stir in April ’83 by giving a “smoke-&-mirrors” demo of their prototypical Interface Manager, using overlapping windows to simulate multiple programs running simultaneously. Top View was released in 1985 and discontinued in 1987; its graphical interface influenced IBM’s much more noticeable OS/2, even though a GUI-driven version was never made public. Graphical user interface , a computer program that enables a person to communicate with a computer through the use of symbols, visual metaphors, and pointing devices. The GUI is now the standard computer interface, and its components have themselves become unmistakable cultural artifacts.

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Examples of 3D user-interface software include XGL and Compiz from Novell, and AIGLX bundled with Red Hat Fedora. Quartz Extreme for macOS and Windows 7 and Vista’s Aero interface use 3D rendering for shading and transparency effects as well as Exposé and Windows Flip and Flip 3D, respectively. Windows Vista uses Direct3D to accomplish this, whereas the other interfaces use OpenGL. In the late 1990s, there was significant compra venta automoviles growth in the Unix world, especially among the free software community. New graphical desktop movements grew up around Linux and similar operating systems, based on the X Window System. A new emphasis on providing an integrated and uniform interface to the user brought about new desktop environments, such as KDE Plasma 5, GNOME and Xfce which have supplanted CDE in popularity on both Unix and Unix-like operating systems.

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Sometime around the debut of the Amiga, the first UNIX GUI appeared as well. Many UNIX heads had long sneered at the simple-minded, overly convoluted operating systems and playtoy PCs that were populating the consumer market. But some UNIX users decided to see if they could overlay a GUI on UNIX in the same fashion as Microsoft overlaid Windows atop DOS, and thus X was born. X (sometimes called “X Windows,” and sometimes incorrectly called “X for Windows”) was born at MIT, fathered by a Stanford University windowing system called W and mothered by Sun’s “SunView” environment. X became the main graphics system for most RISC-based UNIX operating systems. While X was a well-written and easily handled OS shell, it never settled on a particular “look and feel,” and as a result at least three different interfaces, or “windows managers,” floated around for it.

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