Saltar al contenido

Computer Science History Flashcards


The idea of direct manipulation of objects on a screen is integral to the concept of a graphic interface. In fact, the idea of a GUI derives from cognitive psychology, the study of how the brain deals with communication. The idea is that the brain works much more efficiently with graphical icons and displays rather than with words – words add an extra layer of interpretation to the communication process. Imagine if all the road signs you saw were uniform white rectangles, with only the words themselves to differentiate the different commands, warnings, and informational displays. When the “Stop” signs hardly look different from the “Resume Highway Speed” signs, the processing of the signs’ messages becomes a slower and more difficult process, and you’d have even more wrecks than you have now. «Sketchpad pioneered the concepts of graphical computing, including memory structures to store objects, rubber-banding of lines, the ability to zoom in and out on the display, and the ability to make perfect lines, corners, and joints. This was the first GUI long before the term was coined.»

Guis And Command Lines

Who created the first operating system?

Kildall, a Seattle native 1972 graduate of the University of Washington, was the creator of the landmark personal computer operating system CP/M, playing a critical role in the PC revolution.

Of course, neither Jobs nor Wozniak were the first to think of personal desktop-sized computers (common wisdom gives that honor to the MITS “Altair,” a 1975 kit-based creation running Microsoft’s BASIC OS and based on Intel’s 8080 chip), but that’s another story. Relatively inexpensive and fantastically easy to use, the «Mac» was a smashing success, despite the limited computing power and memory housed in the chassis. Programs like MacPaint, which contained the seminal elements of Photoshop, the king of modern graphics editing programs, turned an entire generation of artists on to the possibilities of digital art. There was a shortage of software, but companies were eager to develop for the Mac, seeing its potential for widespread infiltration into the non-techie market. One of the biggest software developers for the Macintosh was a company called Microsoft. Everything had to be handled as a command-line operation (meaning, you’d have to type text commands).

Jobs and Wozniak met at Hewlett-Packard and began their collaborative careers by building and selling “blue boxes” illegal devices that scammed free phone calls from Ma Bell. Both shared an interest in the “primitive” computers of the time and enjoyed cobbling together electronic goodies with solder and breadboards. Eventually they decided to start a company and build computers that wouldn’t take up an entire basement, didn’t need supercooling, and didn’t require platoons of guys in jumpsuits to take care of them. In other words, they envisioned building personal computers for the masses.

Will Windows 95 still work?

After more than 7 years of existence, on December 31, 2001, Microsoft officially put an end to the extended support for the Windows 95 operating system.

Computer Science History

Bush, a scientist and futurist, went public with his ideas of the “memex,” a computing device that would use what we’d call hyperlink technology to bring information to every user’s fingertips. Jobs sold his VW minibus, and Wozniak his HP scientific calculator, to finance the startup. In 1977 the Apple II debuted, featuring a sleek plastic case (as opposed to the “orange crates” that houses the Apple I’s), game paddles, and color graphics on the video display. Being descendants of Ugh, people were fascinated by the bright colors and the flickering images, and the Apple II began to move off the shelves. Apple was founded by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak in Jobs’s garage in 1976.

in what year were graphical user interfaces (guis) pioneered

Bush’s ideas sparked some visionary thinking in a scientist named Douglas Engelbart. As early as 1962, while Jobs and Wozniak were still drinking Ovaltine and watching Saturday morning cartoons in their jammies, Engelbart was creating several items of interest to the personal computing crowd that would follow. He invented the first “mouse,” which he called an “X-Y Position Indicator,” a little gizmo housed in a wooden box on wheels that moved around the desktop and took the cursor with it on the display. Engelbart saw the mouse as being an integral part of a “graphical windowed interface,” and invented what he called «a windowed GUI» that fascinated co-workers but wasn’t considered useful outside the lab. In 1968 Engelbart created NLS , a hypermedia groupware system that used the mouse, the windowed GUI, hypermedia with object addressing and linking, and even an early version of video teleconferencing to wow its audience, a group of technicians, engineers, and scientific types at Stanford University.

  • Advanced speech recognition systems would need to have a near-perfect recognition rate.
  • In addition to facilitating visualization, a major and obvious benefit of GUIs is that they allow users to quickly accomplish object-oriented tasks, such as drawing lines and shapes, repositioning or resizing pictures and text, and other graphical manipulations.
  • Inexperienced software developers may be forgiven if they alternately cram too many features and options into one confusing screen and fail to include linkage to the same features on other relevant screens.
  • The entire interface—all of the ways in which the user interacts with the software—must be suited to the tasks it is needed for.
  • This observation highlights the reality that GUIs aren’t, as some people assume, intrinsically better than text-based systems just because they’re graphical.
  • However, design problems are endemic in GUIs, and poorly conceived designs can be a drain on both productivity and patience.