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Chapter 4 Graphical User Interfaces


The Xerox Star was unique because the researchers carefully designed the computer human interface before they began designing the internal workings of the application. Unfortunately, the Xerox Star was too slow, and it was not commercially successful. At a conceptual level, a computer human interface is a «means by which people and computers communicate with each other» . One can make an analogy between a computer system’s GUI and a car’s steering wheel. The wheel directly binds the driver to the operation and functionality of the vehicle.

Introduction To Jfc And Gui Programming In Java

Although a separate GUI standard, many X-Window based GUI, such as Motif and TCL/TK, have copied the look and feel of the IBM SAA. X-Windows is still the underlying library for these GUI. This is because any X-Windows software can use the X-Windows library, which gives it great portability and standardization across platforms. Figure 1 illustrates a typical X-Windows GUI with three common icons. Researchers at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center designed the first application with a GUI, the Xerox Star, in 1977.

graphical user interface programming

This is because, at a distance greater than 2.5 degrees from the point of fixation, visual acuity decreases by half. Therefore, a circle of radius 2.5 degrees around the point of fixation is what the user can see clearly. X-Windows also works directly with networks, which allows the GUI display to be on one computer and the application mantenimiento de flota that the user needs on another computer. It does not matter if the two computers are in different rooms or on different continents. It addition to the three common GUI components, X-Windows has a collect of application tools and utilities as a built in X-Library. Figure 2 illustrates a TCL/TK GUI that uses the X-Library utilities.

Graphical User Interface

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Future trends in GUI are toward voice recognition and hypertext format language . The hypertext trend allows the user to move directly from data and concepts in one application to similar data and concepts in other application. These trends will further remove the GUI as an obstacle between the user and the task. The primary goal of a GUI is to allow the user to concentrate on the task at hand. To do this, the GUI must make the interface between the human and the computer seamless. Modern GUIs adhere to one of three de facto standards, which are the Apple Macintosh, the IBM SAA, and the MIT X-Windowing System. These standards are not perfect, but they are good enough to preclude major deviation.

What is GUI in Java programming?

In Java applications, the components that comprise a GUI (Graphical User Interface) are stored in containers called forms. The Java language provides a set of user interface components from which GUI forms can be built.

Miller showed that absolute identification using one-dimensional criteria was about seven items, plus or minus two. Miller introduced the concept of recoding as a method that people use to store information. Miller also pointed out that by expanding the identification criteria from one to more dimensions people could handle more choices and remember more. Later researchers expanded on Miller recoding to develop the concept that people chuck information together in order to remember more information . This research has direct impact on GUI design, especially concerning the number of menu items and icons. The retina of eye can only focus on about on a very small portion of a computer screen, or anything for that matter, at any one time .

What are desktop apps written in?

net) or C++ is the main programming languages to develope desktop applications. C++ is normally used in personal applications, and most business applications were developed in C++. But C# were commonly used in enterprise applications, it is more suitable for rapid customization development.

Future GUI will probably utilize one or more of these standards unless major performance enhancements result. Utilizing key psychological factors, GUI designers can achieve a seamless computer human interface. Once the user has a desired fixation point, there is a limit to the amount of information that the person can process at one time. A GUI design rule of thumb is that the range of options or choices should never be more than five or six .

graphical user interface programming