Part of what made the first Macintosh a pivotal event was that Apple did not merely copy the PARC pattern; they reinvented and improved it. The development took five years, an eon by industry standards, and involved deeper investigation of interface psychology and design than anyone had ever attempted before. Apple successfully claimed the leading role in carrying forward buenos-dias.net the PARC-style GUI. Two decades later, the Apple Human Interface Guidelines are still recommended reading for anyone who wants to do graphical user interfaces well. The 3B1’s demise took the concept of the personal workstation down with it; nothing similar was ever attempted afterwards, and the initiative in Alto-style interfaces once again passed out of the Unix world.
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Thus, the really pivotal 1984 event in the history of the GUI was when Apple released the Macintosh and brought the Alto-style graphical user interface to the masses. International Business Machines Corporation PC-compatible computers, that the GUI became the standard interface for personal computers.
The history of the graphical user interface, understood as the use of graphic icons and a pointing device to control a computer, covers a five-decade span of incremental refinements, built on some constant core vaporetade-mano.com principles. Several vendors have created their own windowing systems based on independent code, but with basic elements in common that define the WIMP «window, icon, menu and pointing device» paradigm.
This in turn led to the development of various graphical interfaces for UNIX and other workstation operating systems. By 1995, when Microsoft released its even more intuitive Windows 95 OS, not only had components of the GUI become synonymous with computing but its images had found their way into other media, including print design and even television commercials. It was even argued that, with the advent of the GUI, engineering had merged with art to create a new medium of the interface. The standard windowing system in the Unix world is the X Window System , first released in the mid-1980s.
When did GUI begin?
The first GUI was developed by researchers at Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) in the ’70s. This research opened a whole new era of computer graphic innovations. The first personal computer which used a modern graphical user interface was the Xerox Alto, developed in 1973.
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The W Window System was the precursor to X; X was developed at MIT as Project Athena. Its original purpose was to allow users of the newly emerging graphic terminals to access remote graphics workstations without regard to the workstation’s operating system or the hardware. led to the advances at Xerox PARC. Several people went from SRI to Xerox PARC in the early 1970s. It had a bitmapped screen, and was the first computer to demonstrate the desktop metaphor and graphical user interface . It was not a commercial product, but several thousand units were built and were heavily used at PARC, as well as other XEROX offices, and at several universities for many years. The Alto greatly influenced the design of personal computers during the late 1970s and early 1980s, notably the Three Rivers PERQ, the Apple Lisa and Macintosh, and the first Sun workstations.
Kay also borrowed ideas from a highly graphical language called Logo, which was designed to teach programming to children. Smalltalk featured a graphical user interface that looked suspiciously similar to later iterations from both Apple and Microsoft.
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- By contrast, as I’ll now talk about, the Apple Macintosh was clearly designed for consumers, not creators.
- The Macintosh was democratic only in the manner any kitchen appliance is democratic.
- That said, Apple’s redefinition of the overall philosophy of personal computing exemplifies just one of many reversals that abound in this ten year period from the mid-1970s to the mid-1980s.