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15 1. Graphical User Interfaces


Each GUI element is defined as a class widget from which you can create object instances for your application. You can code or modify prepackaged methods that an object will use to respond to user stimuli. These GUI-based programs were controlled with a mouse pointer that moved around the screen when users moved a physical mouse. This shift meant users no longer had to learn a long list of commands to operate a computer.

Every command was represented in a menu or by an icon on the screen. This interface uses icons, menus, and other graphics representations to display information and related user controls, unlike text-based interfaces, where data and commands are in text. GUI representations are manipulated by a pointing device such as a mouse, trackball, stylus, or a finger on a touchscreen. A GUI is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with graphical icons and visual indicators. window and all objects associated with a task are confined in its window. On the screen, there is a special icon called a cursor whose position defines the current focus of the user, and all input given by the user will be delivered to the window where the cursor is located. The user can select any object he or she wants freely by moving the cursor to the top of the object and clicking a button on the mouse.

How is GUI user friendly?

GUI objects include icons, cursors, and buttons. These graphical elements are sometimes enhanced with sounds, or visual effects like transparency and drop shadows. A GUI is considered to be more user-friendly than a text-based command-line interface, such as MS-DOS, or the shell of Unix-like operating systems.

Most old PCs ran an operating system called CP/M, a simple command-line interface that sort of evolved into the amazing graphic computer desktops you see today. International Business Machines Corporation PC-compatible computers, that the GUI became the standard interface for personal computers. This in turn led to the development of various graphical interfaces for UNIX and other workstation operating systems. It software construccion was even argued that, with the advent of the GUI, engineering had merged with art to create a new medium of the interface. Graphical user interface , a computer program that enables a person to communicate with a computer through the use of symbols, visual metaphors, and pointing devices. The GUI is now the standard computer interface, and its components have themselves become unmistakable cultural artifacts.

Difference Between Web User Interface And Graphical User Interface

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The quality of the design is the overriding issue for all interfaces . On the other hand, there is shortage of empirical studies substantiating these guidelines. This lack of empirical research is especially apparent for modern GUI designs, such as Windows ’95, Quicken 7.0, and Dbase 5. Then some fellas at Xerox in Palo Alto around 1981, thought up a neat way to get around all that memorizing and typing, using graphic icons and arrows. Personal computers really needed an easy interface for casual users.

Visually Impaired Users

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The use of three-dimensional graphics has become increasingly common in mainstream operating systems, from creating attractive interfaces, termed eye candy, to functional purposes only possible using three dimensions. For example, user switching is represented by rotating a cube that faces are each user’s workspace, and window management are represented via a Rolodex-style flipping mechanism in Windows Vista . In both cases, the operating system transforms windows on-the-fly while continuing to update the content of those windows. None of this covers why is user friendly. It’s not fair to say that «graphical user interfaces» are universally user-friendly, or even more user-friendly than the equivalent command line interface. There’s a reason why the command line persists to this day, well after we’ve all developed the ability to develop GUIs for most problems.

  • A GUI contains graphic elements such as windows, menus, icons, and links that you select when you’re working with an operating system, software application, or mobile app.
  • GUI stands for graphical user interface and is pronounced GOO-ee or gooey.
  • An intermediate step in user interfaces between the command line interface and the GUI was the non-graphical menu-based interface, which let you interact by using a mouse rather than by having to type in keyboard commands.

In the very earliest computers, user interfaces were usually a bunch of switches that a user would change to change what the computer was to do. This method was slow and the users had to know the code that the computer would understand. Only a small number of people used this method and as computers improved, better ways to talk to computers were invented. The uses of a pointer that serves as navigation to interact with different visually appealing Graphical icons.

a graphical user interface

Abstraction is a major concept that has been used in a GUI operating system. Users can use the pointer to click on the icon which initiates a series of actions. Then the user will have to provide input or tasks to generate the desired action from the machine. The GUI actually translates user language which comprises simple one-line commands, single click and double clicks to machine language or assembly language. Machine language is understood by the machine and hence the machine responds to the task initiated which is translated to use language and communicated to the user via GUI. Although GUI are an integral part of an application, GUIs are not inherently easier to use than command line interfaces.

a graphical user interface

A double click usually means to invoke a task represented by the clicked icon. Because users can intuitively manipulate objects, GUI is also referred to as direct manipulation user interface . After the arrival of the GUI, many computer systems moved from having boring text screens to having rich graphical interfaces.

Thanks to GUIs, working with computers has become much more visually appealing, and even fun. A user interface is a way to have a person communicate with a computer.